Vieno Halonen was serving on the front line when his daughter was born, and Lyyli Halonen went out to work in the same way as other working-class wives. The family lived in the working-class district of Kallio.
Lyyli Forss respected decent and modest working-class people, honesty and fairness. Tarja started her school life at the Kallio primary school in autumn Four years later she moved to the Kallio coeducational school and in became the first in her working-class family to matriculate. Halonen was admitted to the Faculty of Law of the University of Helsinki in autumnprior to which she studied art history for a year.
She obtained her Master of Laws degree in with a major in criminal law. Tarja Halonen started her career before graduating, working as a lawyer for the collection agency Luotonvalvonta oy in Halonen took an important step towards a career in politics in when she became Parliamentary Secretary to Prime Minister Kalevi Sorsa. Sorsa soon noticed that the young lawyer could think independently while remaining a completely loyal colleague.
In she embarked on a career in local politics, which lasted nearly twenty years, when she was elected to the Helsinki City Council. In autumn Halonen was supposed to host a national defence course for persons holding key positions in society. She was to fly to Rissala in Kuopio to attend the course, but her doctor forbade her from flying due to the late stage of her pregnancy.
President of Finland
This decision saved the lives of Halonen and her unborn daughter, as the plane crashed on its return flight to Helsinki, killing all onboard. Her mother Lyyli helped look after the baby, who was sometimes even taken with to Parliament. Halonen and Pekkonen broke up in the early s. The merits of the labour market lawyer did not go unnoticed in Parliament, and Halonen was given several positions of trust. As a politician Halonen was strictly to the point, determined and ambitious, but conversely humane, tolerant and warm hearted.
During her political career Halonen was also active in non-governmental organisations. It seems to have been more a way of life than just something she did in her spare time. She was involved in issues ranging from the Solidarity Movement to defending human rights and peace.
Although Halonen is not a member of the Lutheran Church, she has also been actively involved in Christian work, such as the Finnish Federation of Settlement Houses. In addition, Halonen has worked in various cultural and sporting organisations. Halonen liked to spend her free time enjoying art and culture, looking after her allotment garden and exercising.
She also served as Minister for Nordic Cooperation between andand in she became Minister of Justice. President Martti Ahtisaari announced shortly before the deadline for declaring candidacies that he would not stand for re-election.
In the second round of voting Halonen received Halonen was a Social Democratic Party member of parliament from until her election to the presidency in Halonen was an extremely popular president, with her approval ratings reaching a peak of 88 percent in December Widely known for her interest in human rights issues, Halonen served as the chairperson of the Finnish LGBT rights organization Seta in the s, and she actively participated in the discussion of issues such as women's rights and the problems of globalization during her presidency.
Inshe was mentioned by various commentators as a potential candidate for the United Nations Secretary-General selectionbut she denied an interest at that time, stating that she wanted to finish her term as president before thinking about other career options. Halonen is a member of the Council of Women World Leadersan international network of current and former women presidents and prime ministers whose mission is to mobilize the highest-level women leaders globally for collective action on issues of critical importance to women and equitable development.
Tarja Halonen was born on 24 December in the district of Kallio which is a traditional working-class area in central Helsinki.
Halonen's parents married each other at the beginning of World War II and Tarja was born a few years later. Vieno Halonen was at the frontline and Lyyli Halonen was working in a shoe factory when their daughter was born.
After the war the couple decided to get a divorce, and in Lyyli Halonen married her new husband Thure Forss, who worked as an electrician and was very active in the working-class community. Both Halonen's mother and her stepfather influenced her world view extensively. Halonen later said that her mother was a true survivor, always an extremely active and resilient person who valued good, honest and modest hardworking people.
When she entered politics, Halonen stated that these are also the qualities and attributes she respects in people.Tarja Halonen, saako presidentti käyttää arvovaltaansa sisäpolitiikassa?
In she began her studies in Kallio Elementary school from where she later moved to Kallio Gymnasium and finally finished her matriculation examination in She began to study Art History in the University of Helsinki in but in autumn she changed her studies to law, and obtained her Master of Laws degree in specializing in criminal law.
She began to work as a lawyer, already before obtaining her degree, in a credit surveillance company Luotonvalvonta oy in After working there for a few years, she was hired by the National Union of University Students in Finland to work as a Social Affairs and General Secretary from to Her work in the Union spurred her interest in politics, and in she obtained a post as a lawyer in the Central Organisation of Finnish Trade Unionsbeing the first female ever to work as a lawyer in the Union.
InTarja Halonen joined the Nizami Ganjavi International Center Board, it is a cultural, non-profit, non-political organization dedicated to the memory of Persian poet, Nizami Ganjavi, the study and dissemination of his works, the promotion of the principles embodied in his writings, the advancement of culture and creative expression, and the promotion of learning, dialogue, tolerance and understanding between cultures and people.
In Halonen joined the Social Democratic Party which had close ties with the trade unions in which she worked as a lawyer from to In early she was elected to represent Central Organisation of Finnish Trade Unions in a committee that called for the recognition of East Germany. She became acquainted with the world of Finnish politics and government and her political career took a great step forward, as she went on to hold a number of public offices.
Sorsa later said that he wanted his parliamentary secretary to have good ties with the trade unions of Finland and have skills in jurisprudence. Working in Parliament made Halonen even more interested in politics and she decided to take part in the municipal elections of She was elected to the City Council of Helsinki, a position she held continuously for five terms from to Additionally inshe was elected into Parliament as a representative of the Helsinki constituency.
She served five full terms and less than a year of her sixth term in Parliament until her inauguration as President in In Parliament, her first formal post was as the chairman of the Social Committee, which she held from to Halonen held the position until In addition to this, she served as Minister for Nordic Cooperation from tothe same year in which she was also appointed the chairman of the International Solidarity Foundation, a post she relinquished in From to she served as Minister of Justice, and from until her election to the presidency, she served as the Minister of Foreign Affairs in the Lipponen I Cabinet.Under the Constitution of Finlandexecutive power is vested in the President and the Finnish Governmentwith the former possessing only residual powers.
The President is directly elected by universal suffrage for a term of six years. Sinceno President may be elected for more than two consecutive terms. The President must be a Finnish citizen by birth.
The Presidential office was established in the Constitution Act of He was elected for the first time in and was re-elected in Finland has, for most of its independence, had a semi-presidential system in which the president had much authority and power over both foreign and domestic policy, but in the late 20th and early 21st centuries, the powers of the President have been subject to decrease. In constitutional amendments, which came into effect in, andthe President's powers have been reduced.
The President still leads the nation's foreign politics in conjunction with the Government, and is the commander-in-chief of the Finnish Defence Forces. Officially, the current head of state of Finland is the President of the Republic of Finland Finnish : Suomen tasavallan presidentti ; Swedish : Republiken Finlands president or, more often, the President of the Republic tasavallan presidenttirepublikens president.
This is in contrast to the former presidents, who retain the title "President". Candidates for president can be nominated by registered parties which have received at least one seat in the preceding parliamentary election. A candidate may also be nominated by 20, enfranchised citizens. Between andthe president was elected indirectly by an electoral college made up of electors chosen by voters in the presidential election.
In the presidential election, a direct and an indirect election were conducted in parallel: if no candidate could gain a majority, the president was elected by an electoral college formed in the same elections.
Sincethe president has been elected by a direct popular vote. If only one candidate is nominated, that candidate becomes president without an election. Otherwise, the first round of balloting takes place on the fourth Sunday  of January in the election year. The elections are two-staged. If one of the candidates receives more than half of the votes cast, that candidate is elected president.
If no candidate wins a majority in the first stage, the top two candidates rerun in the second stage two weeks  later. The candidate who then receives more votes is elected. In the event of a tie, the election is resolved by lot.
The Government confirms the outcome of the election and, if necessary, conducts the drawing of lots. The President assumes office on the first day of the month following the election either 1 February or 1 March depending on whether there were one or two rounds.
There have been several exceptional presidential elections. In andthe electoral college chose the president, as it was felt that a popular election could not be arranged due to the martial law and the Continuation War In special legislation directly stipulated that Marshal Mannerheim be elected president for six years after Risto Ryti had resigned mid-term.
Inspecial legislation empowered the Parliament to choose a successor for the remainder of Mannerheim's term untilthe latter having resigned. Inspecial legislation extended President Urho Kekkonen 's term by four years untilwhen he was re-elected regularly. The President-elect, accompanied by the Speaker of the Parliament and the outgoing President, assumes office on the first day of the month following the election by making a solemn affirmation in both Finnish and Swedish at a ceremony in Parliament House.
The term of the president-elect begins at the moment the solemn affirmation has been made about on the day of the inauguration. After the inauguration, the new president, accompanied by the president's predecessor, inspects the guard of honour outside Parliament House. The President exercises his governmental powers "in council" with the Finnish Governmentechoing the royal curia regis.
The session is customarily arranged once a week. There is quorum of five ministers and the Chancellor of Justice is present as well. In the session, the respective ministers present the topic and a proposal for decision.Tarja Halonenborn December 24,HelsinkiFinlandFinnish politician who served as president of Finland —12the first woman elected to that office.
As a student at the University of Helsinki, Halonen served —70 as social affairs secretary and general secretary of the National Union of Finnish Students. After earning a degree in law inshe began her professional career as an attorney with the Central Organization of Finnish Trade Unions. Halonen then entered politics, serving in —75 as parliamentary secretary to Prime Minister Kalevi Sorsa. In parliament Halonen broadened her experience in domestic and international politics by holding a number of cabinet posts.
Before her appointment as foreign affairs minister inshe served as minister of social affairs and health —90minister for Nordic cooperation —91and minister of justice — In she was nominated as the SDP candidate for president. After topping the poll in the first round of balloting and winning the required 50 percent threshold to avoid a runoff, she narrowly defeated former prime minister Esko Aho of the Centre Party Tarja Halonen. Article Media. Info Print Cite. Submit Feedback. Thank you for your feedback.
David Calhoun Freelance Editor and Writer. See Article History. Britannica Explores Women Trailblazers. Meet extraordinary women who dared to bring gender equality and other issues to the forefront. From overcoming oppression, to breaking rules, to reimagining the world or waging a rebellion, these women of history have a story to tell. Learn More in these related Britannica articles:. Finlandcountry located in northern Europe. Nearly two-thirds of Finland is blanketed by thick woodlands, making it the most densely forested country in Europe.
Finland also forms a symbolic northern border…. European Union EUinternational organization comprising 27 European countries and governing common economic, social, and security policies.
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By signing up, you agree to our Privacy Notice. Be on the lookout for your Britannica newsletter to get trusted stories delivered right to your inbox. More About. Articles from Britannica Encyclopedias for elementary and high school students.Tarja Kaarina Halonen s.
Tarja Halonen syntyi jatkosodan aikana, jouluaattona Ammatiltaan Loimola oli somistaja ja kotiapulainen. Taidehistorian opintoja kesti vuoden ennen kuin Halonen siirtyi lukemaan lakia.
DDR:n tunnustamiskomitea vastusti Suomen virallista ulkopoliittista linjaa. Halonen ja Pekkonen erosivat luvun alkupuolella. Aho yritti voittaa kansan tuen vetoamalla ydinperheen ja uskonnon kaltaisiin arvoihin. Suomen Pankin pankkivaltuusto esitti Halonen totesi olevansa iloinen ettei samankaltaisia tilanteita tule kovinkaan usein vastaan.
Samana vuonna Yhdysvallat aloitti sodan Irakia vastaan. Vuosi toi mukanaan paljon arvostelua Halosen johtamaa ulkopolitiikkaa kohtaan. Taiteilija Juhani Toukonen maalasi tilauksesta kaksi muotokuvaa tasavallan presidentti Tarja Halosesta . Halonen oli suhtautunut varovaisesti uusien EU:n nopean toiminnan joukkojen toimintaan ilman YK:n mandaattia. Halonen arvosteli kokoomuksen vaalikampanjaa vastakkainasettelun lietsomisesta. Joulukuussa Halonen totesi Suomen Kuvalehden haastattelussa olevansa huolissaan suomalaisista rauhanturvaajista Afganistanissa.
Kokouksessa Halonen otti vastaan Millennium-soihdun palkintona ansioistaan tasa-arvon ja naisten aseman parantamisessa. Syyskuussa Halonen puolusti Suomen vakuusvaatimuksia Kreikalta. Suomen maineen sijaan Halonen sanoi olevansa erityisen huolestunut euron ja Euroopan tilanteesta tulevaisuudessa.
Presidentti Halonen matkusti presidenttikausiensa aikana vuosina — kaikkiaan een maahan. Halosen mukana matkoilla oli yritysvaltuuskunta yli 20 maassa. Halosen ulkomaanmatkat: . Kokoomuksen kannattajien joukossa vastaava luku oli 70 prosenttia. Neutraalisti Halosen toimintaan suhtautui kymmenen prosenttia vastanneista.
Halonen analysoi ohjelmassa omaa 12 vuoden presidenttikauttaan. Halosen presidenttikausista on tehty dokumenttielokuvajonka ensi-ilta oli Elokuvan nimi on Rouva presidentti. Vuoden presidentinvaalien aikana Halonen sai arvostelua erityisesti konservatiivisilta ehdokkailta, perussuomalaisten Timo Soinilta ja kristillisdemokraattien Bjarne Kallikselta.
Tarja Halonen tuki voimakkaasti maamiinojen poistamista Suomen armeijan puolustusaseistuksesta. Halonen on ollut aktiivinen ulkopolitiikassa erityisesti ihmisoikeuksien puolustajana.
Patokallion mukaan asevaraisesta turvallisuudesta tuli haukkumasana ja aseidenriisunnasta itseisarvo. Kaikki koneen matkustajat kuolivat ja Rissalan lentoturma onkin ilmavoimien rauhanajan pahin lento-onnettomuus. Riitta Uosukainen Kok.
Tarja Halonen Suomen tasavallan Holkerin hallitus 1. Lipposen I hallitus Viitattu Find tipsters worth following in the monthly competition leaderboards.
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